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Canada has made more than 350 inquiries or commissions into all sorts of issues since confederation. The goal of an inquiry is to fully and impartially investigate issues of national importance. Inquiries make non-binding findings and recommendations. Here is a flavour of some of Canada’s commissions by ethnic group.

Choose a report to see Canada’s concerns, objectives, and process.


Land: Canada established commissions to negotiate treaties, determine reserves, and address claims.
Commission to Fix and Determine the Number, Extent and Locality of the Reserve or Reserves to be Allowed to the Indians of British Columbia
1906-07 Commission to Negotiate a Treaty with Certain Indians in the Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, and to Investigate, Hear and Determine the Claims of Halfbreeds therein 
Commission re St. Peter's Indian Reserve
1913-16 Royal Commission on Indian Affairs (Commission respecting Indian Lands and Indian Affairs Generally in the Province of British Columbia) 
1923 Commission to Investigate and Report Upon the Validity of a Claim Made by Certain Indians of the Chippewa and Mississauga Tribes
1929-30 Commission for the Purpose of Negotiating an Extension of James Bay Treaty No. 9 with the Ojibwas and Other Indians 
1969-77 Commissioner on Indian Claims: A Report: Statements and Submissions = Un rapport : déclarations et mémoires (Appointed to review and study grievances concerning Indian claims) 
1991-09 Indian Claims Commission, final report: 1991 2009: a Unique Contribution to the Resolution of First Nations' Specific Claims in Canada 

Band Creation and Membership

1944-47 Commission to Inquire into the Matters of Membership in the Indian Bands in Lesser Slave Lake Agency 
1958 Commission to Inquire Into the Desirability of Establishing a New Band of Indians on Seabird Island, British Columbia 

Governance and Other Issues

1923-24 Commission to Investigate and Report Upon the Affairs of the Six Nations Indians (including education, health, morality, election of chiefs, powers assumed by council, administration of justice, soldiers’ settlement) 
1946-47 Commission of Indian Affairs (Mi’qmak and Maliseet – covering concerns such as the failure to live up to treaty obligations, band membership, enfranchisement, operation of Indian schools, social and economic status and living conditions) 
1959 Royal Commission to Investigate the Unfulfilled Provisions of Treaties 8 and 11 as they Apply to the Indians of the Mackenzie District 
1986-88 Commission of Inquiry Concerning Certain Matters Associated with the Westbank Indian Band 


Who are they?

1885 Royal Commission to Inquire Into the Enumeration of Half-Breeds in the North-West Territories 

Royal Commission to Inquire into and Report upon the Enumeration of Half-Breeds in the North-West Territories Outside of Manitoba

Report Requesting Claims by Half-Breeds 

North-West Half-Breed Claims Commission (Royal Commission to Inquire Into and Complete the Enumeration of Half-Breeds and Claims of White Settlers in the North-West Territories)

What have they done?

1869-70 North-West Territories: Report of Donald A. Smith (Mr. Smith met with Louis Riel and Provision Government at Fort Garry.) 
1885-86 Commission to Investigate all Claims Arising out of the Late Rebellion in the Northwest Territories 
1886-87 Royal Commission into Claims for Compensation for Loss or Damage Arising Out of the Late Half-breed and Indian Insurrection in the North-West Territories 


1875-76 Commission to Ascertain Persons Entitled to Grants of Land and Scrip in Manitoba 
1899 Commission to Investigate the Claims Which May Be Preferred by the Half-Breeds in the North-West Territories 
1900-01 Commission to Investigate and Adjudicate upon the Claims to Land or Scrip Arising out of the Extinguishment of the Indian Title Preferred by or on Behalf of Half-Breeds 
1900-01 Commission to Investigate and Deal with Halfbreed Claims in the District of Athabaska and the Adjoining Country 
1900-01 Report from Mr. J. A. J. McKenna, Half-Breed commissioner, in Report to the Reserved Claims in the North-West Territories 
1901 Commission to Investigate and Deal with Certain Half-Breed Claims in the Province of Manitoba and the North-West Territories
1905 Commission to Investigate Certain Charges Made by the Halfbreed Residents of the United States Against R. C. Macdonald (RC MacDonald was not guilty of practising any deceit, fraud or misrepresentation in his transactions with the halfbreeds; there is a question of whether the halfbreeds clearly understood the nature and intent of the documents signed by them.) 


1991-96 Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples 
2016-19 National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls (MMIWG) 

Chinese and Japanese

1884-85 Royal Commission on Chinese Immigration 
1900-02 Royal Commission on Chinese and Japanese Immigration Into British Columbia 
1907-08 Royal Commission Appointed to Investigate Methods by Which Oriental Labourers Have Been Induced to Come to Canada 
1907-08 Royal Commission Regarding Losses Sustained by the Japanese Population of Vancouver, British Columbia, on the Occasion of the Riots in that City in September, 1907 
1910-11 Commission to Investigate Alleged Chinese Frauds and Opium Smuggling on the Pacific Coast 
1943-44 Commission to Inquire Into the Provision Made for the Persons of the Japanese Race in Settlements in British Columbia 
1947-50 Royal Commission to Investigate Property Claims of Canadian Citizens of Japanese Origin Evacuated from Coast Areas of British Columbia in 1942 

Other Ethnic or Religious Groups

1904-05 Royal Commission on Italian Immigration (to Inquire into the Immigration of Italian Labourers to Montreal and the Alleged Fraudulent Practices of Employment Agencies) 
1914 Commission to Investigate Hindu Claims Following Refusal of Immigration Officials to Allow over 300 Hindus Aboard the S.S. Komagata Maru to Land at Vancouver